Liquid Biopsy

Overview

Liquid biopsy offers quick and easy access to tumor samples, as well as the potential for serial sampling. This non-invasive technology makes it feasible to expand oncology research to include cohorts that are unable to undergo a standard biopsy procedure or did not yield adequate tissue samples. With liquid biopsy, researchers can analyze biomarkers circulating in the bloodstream obtained through a conventional blood draw.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained significance as a biomarker for cancer as they are released into the bloodstream by delocalized tumor cells, thus having the potential to provide a more accurate representation of tumor heterogeneity compared to tissue samples.1

Advantages of liquid biopsy and ctDNA

  • Simple, fast, non-invasive test – easier sample access
  • ctDNA can reveal a cancer’s comprehensive genetic profile1  
  • Potentially more accurate representation of tumor heterogeneity and burden1
  • Ablility to perform multiple tests on same subject – potential for longitudinal monitoring

However, there are some key technical challenges with ctDNA:

 

There is very little circulating DNA per blood draw2

 

A very small percentage (as few as 0.01%) of circulating DNA is tumor-derived3

 

 Tumor-specific mutations differ among research subjects4

 

AVENIO ctDNA Analysis Kits, a portfolio of three next-generation sequencing (NGS) liquid biopsy assays, overcome these challenges with proven molecular techniques and proprietary error suppression strategies.5

Learn more about AVENIO ctDNA Analysis Kits.

References

1. Diaz LA and Bardelli A. Liquid biopsies: genotyping circulating tumor DNA. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(6):579-586.

2. Volik S, Alcaide M, Morin R, Collins C. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA): Clinical Significance and Utility in Cancer Shaped By Emerging Technologies. Molecular Cancer Research. 2016;14(10):898-908. doi:10.1158/1541-7786.mcr-16-0044.

3. Francis G, Stein S. Circulating Cell-Free Tumour DNA in the Management of Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015;16(6):14122-14142. doi:10.3390/ijms160614122.

4. Salk J, Fox E, Loeb L. Mutational Heterogeneity in Human Cancers: Origin and Consequences. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. 2010;5(1):51-75. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-121808-102113.

5. Newman AM, Lovejoy AF, Klass DM, et al. Integrated digital error suppression for improved detection of circulating tumor DNA. Nature Biotechnology. 2016;34(5):547–555. doi:10.1038/nbt.3520.

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